The smallest sculptures ever made

Jonty Hurwitz is an artist, The smallest sculpture of a human form ever made posed to scale on a human hair. the world's most miniscule sculptures – but there is nothing small about this scientific feat of art.

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World Asteroid Day June 30 2015 - Asteroid threat means Earth 'living on borrowed time'

Astrophysicist and lead guitarist of rock band Queen Dr. Brian May has warned that an asteroid impact was all but inevitable. 

Events for Asteroid Day will be organised by individuals and independent organisations around the world on 30 June, the anniversary of the asteroid impact at Tunguska, Siberia, which destroyed 1,300 square kilometres.

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Scientists expect the 1,100 kg GOCE satellite to crash to Earth in just days ...Nov. 8, 2013

ESA said Friday that humans are 250,000 times more likely to win the lottery than to get hit by the debris weighing up to 90 kilograms (200 pounds) that may survive the breakup. 

The European Space Agency says its will crash to Earth on Sunday night or during the day on Monday, but debris is unlikely to cause any casualties.

Scientists say the 1,100-kilogram (2,425-pound) satellite already has fallen to an altitude of 170 kilometers (105 miles) and is spiraling steadily downward.

Once it reaches an altitude of 80 kilometers (50 miles) the Earth observation satellite will break apart and four-fifths will burn in the atmosphere.

The European Space Agency's Gravity field and steady-state Ocean Circulation Explorer (GOCE)  cost  $450 million satellite was launched in 2009 to study Earth's gravity field in unprecedented detail.


GOCE was launched in 2009 to map the Earth's gravitational field. It ran out of fuel last month, ending the mission.

Video of Comet ISON crashing into Sun from NASA - WOW !


COMET ISON, R.I.P - it did not survive its brush with the sun today.Thanksgiving Day in the USA, the comet was supposed to pass a little more than a million miles above the surface of the sun.

 As a new movie from SOHO shows, the comet had already disintegrated. In the movie, Comet ISON is clearly falling apart as it approaches the sun

Click to set the scene in motion, and pay careful attention to the head of the comet:

Researchers working with the Solar Dynamics Observatory report that they are saw nothing along the track that ISON was expected to follow through the sun's atmosphere.



Americas Cup Boat goes nearly 90 km / hr - 2.8 times the speed wind

America's Cup: how the yachts go faster than the wind



The victory by Sir Ben Ainslie and his Oracle Team USA in the America's Cup is being ranked as one of the most astonishing comebacks of all time. Oracle Team USA, with Sir Ben Ainslie on board as tactician, completed one of the most remarkable sporting comebacks of all time on Wednesday night, trouncing Emirates Team New Zealand by 44 seconds in their winner-takes-all finale in San Francisco.

Since this moment, technological advances have been at the heart of the America's Cup, with teams using cutting edge materials and innovative designs to get an edge. Multihull boats such as catamarans and trimarans were among those innovations that have transformed the America's Cup racing and pushed back the boundaries of what is possible.

These catamarans use innovative wing sail designs and hydrofoils that were initially expected to achieve speeds of up to 1.6 times the speed of the wind when sailing downwind.

However, the yachts have achieved almost 2.79 times the wind speed and reached speeds of up to 47 knots, or 55 miles per hour.

How is it possible to sail faster than the wind?

At first glance this appears to defy logic – how can a yacht travel faster than the wind that is propelling it? However, the boats in the America's Cup use rigid wing sails rather than traditional cloth and mast mail sails. These fixed wings use the same principals of lift force that enables aircraft to fly to drive the boat forward. The speed produced also lifts the catamarans out of the water. When combined with reduced drag through the water, the catamarans essentially fly above the surface of the water.


What is a wing sail?

The AC72 catamarans have rigid sails that are the same size as the wing from a Jumbo Jet Boeing 747 passenger airliner.

Measuring 2,800 square feet, these enormous sails catch huge amounts of wind. They are also shaped just like an aircraft wing, with a wide, rigid front edge and a thin trailing edge. In the same way as an aircraft wing, the sails take advantage of the Bernoulli principle, which a difference in pressure on either side of the sail will create lift, or in this case forward motion through the water.

On these boats the wing sail is built in two separate elements, producing an asymmetric wing where the curved surface over which the air flows can be altered by changing the angle between these elements. The wing sail works because the air on the rear, or leeward, side of the sail travels faster than the air on the front, or windward, side.

This difference in air speed creates low pressure on the leeward side of the sail and high pressure on the windward side, essentially lifting the sail forward just like an aircraft wing generates upward lift. By adjusting the angle between the two elements of the wing, the sailors on board can control the amount of "forward lift" they get from the sail. The more the flaps bend, the more power is generated. However, if the sailors bend the wings too much, then they can lose control or the sail will stall.

What are the wings made of?

The leading edge of the wing is made from carbon fibre and forms a rigid structure a little like a mast. At the rear of the wing, there are soft trailing edges while the rest is made from a thin, lightweight composite shell. The two elements of the wing are fixed close together to ensure there is as small a gap between them as possible. If the gap is too big, air can leak between them, creating drag. The teams have worked closely with the aerospace industry to develop their wings, creating small tweaks and alterations in the curve to maximise lift while giving the crews as much control as possible.

How are the wings controlled?

A series of lines and ropes are attached to the wings to allow the crew to alter the angle of the camber, while the flaps are controlled using hydraulic cables. The crew also carry wireless electronic devices that provide them with updates from sensors carried on the wings to help them keep them in optimal shape.

What about the drag of the water?

In general boats are large, heavy objects that must force their way through the water. Without power they quickly slow down due to the pressure of the water pushing against their hulls.

Catamarans generally have lower drag through the water than single hull boats due to the relatively small amount of the boat that is actually in the water at any one time.

All the same, the AC72s weigh seven tonnes each and that is a lot of boat to force through the water.

What is different about the AC72 boats is that they can sail without any of the hull in the water. They glide along on foils that extend down from the bottom of the hulls instead - something crews have described as being like "flying on water".

Once they reach speeds of around 20 knots the boats pop up out of the water so the weight of the boat is carried on the foils on the rear of the vessel.

Forward winglets are lowered into the water using hydraulic daggerboards.

These allow the yachts to almost glide through the water, cutting through the waves so power is not lost by having to force the boat through oncoming waves.

What is so special about the hydrofoils?

These surfboard sized foils are made from carbon fibre yet are able to withstand up to 15 tonnes of pressure when performing a turn. The entire weight of the boat is lifted out of the water on these foils, and the reduction in drag makes the boat go between 10-15 per cent faster. Crews have discovered that they can push the boundaries of this further and squeeze even more speed out of the boats by maintaining a stable flight height about 1 metre above the water. They do this by controlling the angle of the front foils to ensure the boats remain stable.

Are there risks?

In a word, yes. These boats are travelling at speeds of up to 55 miles per hour above the water while supported on tiny blades of carbon fibre.

The crews must constantly fight to keep the catamarans from pitching forward, causing the bow of the hulls to hit the water and causing the vessel to somersault, known as a pitchpole.

In May this year British Olympic medallist Andrew Simpson was killed while training for the America's Cup when the Swedish Artemis Racing team yacht he was aboard flipped and broke into pieces.

Simpson was trapped under the hull and could not be revived. Crews wear protective armour and helmets. Since Simpson's death they are also required to wear portable air canisters in case they are trapped under water during a capsize.

Who do you think is on the right track - Samsung flexi phone or Sony waterproof ?? or will watches win over both??


Samsung's flexible Youm display is a prototype - the team say they have developed a "fluid-like" polymer electrolyte that is more flexible.

Sony's new Xperia ZR is waterproof to a depth of 1.5m for up to half an hour but the new coatings could allow devices to be submerged for months. So dropping your phone down the toilet may never be a problem again !! 

A spokesman for the Korean science ministry told the Korean Joongang Daily: "Conventional lithium-ion batteries that use liquefied electrolytes had safety problems as the film that separates the electrolytes may melt under heat, in which case the positive and negative elements may come in contact, causing an explosion."  Samsung flexible smartphone called a Youm.

On stage at CES the prototype phone was shown being flexed and bent without any conspicuous colour distortion, with other pre-recorded demonstrations shown on film.

Corning, the maker of Gorilla Glass, which is widely used across mobile phones, is also working on a flexible glass product called Willow.

Sony may be looking at a way of waterproofing electronic components that means they can be immersed in water for days without being damaged.

The technique coats components with a protective layer just a few atoms thick that is impervious to air or water.

They claim devices treated in this way can be left submerged in salt water for months without being harmed – conditions that would destroy normal electronics.

He said: "By creating such barriers films, we are able to extend lifetime and reliability of electronic devices."

Most electronic devices such as mobile phones have films that are strayed onto electronic components to protect them from water vapour in the air and make them splash resistant.

However, these can add bulk to components and tiny imperfections in the way these are created can allow water to get through, meaning they are not totally waterproof.

To protect devices such as mobile phones and cameras from water, a separate case needs to be used.

Professor Graham, who is presenting his findings to the American Vacuum Society's International Symposium and Exhibition, has developed a technique known as atomic layer deposition to create better barriers against water.

By surrounding components with gaseous atoms from a metal like aluminium, they form a layer over the electronics which is then oxidised.

This oxide layer, which is only 10 nanometres thick – around 6,000 times thinner than the width of a human hair – is prevents water from getting to the sensitive electronics underneath.

In one recent study, Professor submerged electronic sensors in water for 10 days after coating them in the atomic film.

The coatings can also be transparent, meaning they can also be used in electronic displays like those found on smart phones.

It could mean that ordinary cameras and mobile phones can be used underwater without coming to any harm.

Professor Graham believes the new coatings could also be used to help protect implantable biomedical devices such as pace makers and underwater sensors








I WANT ONE !! A jetpack produced by New Zealand-based Martin Aircraft is about go into production

This 'Segway of the sky' can fly for 30 minutes on five gallons of gas. Initially, the company expects to manufacture about 800 jetpacks a year.

A personal aircraft that requires minimal training and no pilot's license is about ready for production.  "We're trying to make the world's easiest-to-fly aircraft," Richard Lauder, chief executive of New Zealand-based Martin Aircraft Company tells Discovery News. "Our goal is to create a Segway for the sky, where the principles of flying would be very simple."

It certainly looked that way in the movies and TV shows of the 1960s and 1970s, when everyone from James Bond to Gilligan strapped on a jetpack for a thrilling change of scene.

"I think there's been an interest in this type of flying vehicle ever since man started to fly," said Dick Knapinski communications director for the Experimental Aircraft Association, a non-profit organization. "Going back to Buck Rogers in the '30s, '40s and '50s, it was assumed that within 50 years these things would have become commonplace. It hasn't gone quite as quickly. I think there's a lot more engineering in it than one might perceive."

The key problem has been what is called the "weight-to-thrust" ratio, which basically boils down to the conundrum that the heavier you are or the longer you want to stay in the air, the more power you need, which in turn means you have to carry more weight. The highly publicized Bell Rocket Belt, which was developed in the 1950s, could only fly for 30 seconds, for example.

Martin Aircraft set out to build a flying machine that would fall within U.S. aviation regulations for ultralights, defined as aircraft weighing 254 pounds or less, designed for one person, holding no more than five gallons of fuel and capable of moving at a top speed of 55 knots (63 miles per hour).

The company also is developing a heftier jetpack intended for military, emergency rescue services and other government uses, as well as a remotely piloted, unmanned version, Lauder said.

The recreational-use jetpack is expected to sell for about $100,000.

"I certainly don't think it's going to be a George Jetson-sort-of-situation here, where there's one on every block, especially when the price starts out at $100,000," Knapinski tells Discovery News. "But I think you'll see a small section of people who would like to have one of those. I would do it in a second."

Lauder, who has tested out the jetpack twice, said when you're on the ground and preparing for takeoff, there's a lot of vibration and noise.

"It shakes a lot, but when you get off the ground it gets calm. You get picked up from behind, like the hand of God, and it's very calming," he said.